Penang Survey 2012-2013
Product-Related Environmental Regulations (PRERs)
Impact of Product-Related Environmental Regulations (PRERs) on International Trade
and Technological Spillover through Supply Chain in Asia :
A Case Study of Penang
Objective of the Survey
• Do the PRERs hamper exports?
• What is the cost of the regulations on the region?
• What strategies do firms employ if they are unable to cope with the regulation?
• How do firms cope with the PRERs? What are the challenges?
• What are the successful ways to adopt the PRER ?
• What are the macro-policy options at national and state-level?
• This survey is to assess the impact of importing countries' PRERs on export-linked firms in Penang.
• Info from the survey will contribute to policy recommendations (to the Penang State Government, Federal Government and Asean Countries) to assist
• Research results will help improve the competitiveness of firms.
• Important questions this study hopes to answer include:
industries and firms comply with regulations.